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Her concise replies often disarmed the judges and aroused admiration from the public. If she answered no, she knew she would be lying, while if she answered yes, she would be arrogantly placing herself beyond the authority of the church.


At the beginning of April, a list of 12 accusations, reduced from 70, was approved and then submitted for examination by the University of Paris. They found Joan to be a liar and an invoker of malign spirits. While she claimed to have had visions of archangels and saints, the panel judged that these figures were in fact Belial, Satan, and Behemoth. Joan was found to be a heretic.

If she would not repent, she would be punished as such. On May 24 she was taken to a site on the outskirts of Rouen and placed beside the stake. The sight may have terrified her, leading to a declaration that she would hand herself over to the authority of the church and sign a retraction. The voices had returned, she told them, and had reproached her for her weakness. This relapse was exactly what the accusers wanted; they could now justify the death penalty. As the flames consumed her, she could be heard repeatedly proclaiming the name of Jesus. Distracted by the Wars of the Roses at home, England steadily lost all its possessions in France except the port of Calais.

Charles VII stabilized his reign and transformed France into a great power. History Magazine. Divine voices guided a young girl to lead the French against the English. Read Caption. Painting by Frank Craig, Editor's note: This story originally published In March It has been updated with new information.

Christina Lindberg : Maid in France

This advice as we have already seen shows the absurdity of the statement that Gressart surrendered La Charite, in January , for gold crowns ; that the King took with gold the town which the Maid failed to take with the sword. At the same time, Burgundy's memoir suggests that the French attack on La Charite" was made for sufficient strategic reasons, though the assailants were left destitute by the King and the people of Bourges. However, in fact, the Anglo-Burgundians were unable to carry out their scheme.

Frontier towns, Corbueil and others, the letter of advice says, must be well manned to prevent Sens and Melun from victualling themselves for Melun had come over to King Charles in April ; Laon and Soissons must be attempted, to clear the road to Reims ; while Burgundy must seize Pont a Choisy Choisy le Bac , with its bridge, to secure his communications in his attack on Compiegne,--the central and chief object of his desires : the town that, on September 30, , had disobeyed the King's orders to surrender to Burgundy, preferring death to that dishonour.

They had seen the Maid, and were of her spirit. It is vain, the Burgundian memorial goes on, to make any direct attack on Beauvais, Sens, and Melun, they are too strong.

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The real objective is Compiegne, the other movements are to relieve Paris, and to distract the French on their rear. We now understand the Burgundian plan of campaign, which was entirely ruined, thanks to the resistance of Compiegne, though at the cost of the liberty and life of the Maid. She, according to the dAlencon chronicler, was highly dissatisfied with the plans and preparations of Charles, and left Sully at the end of March without the knowledge of her King.

This is improbable, and, according to M. Anatole France, " Things fell out in quite another way. The Maid raised a company of about a hundred horse and sixty-eight bowmen, under the command of a Lombard captain, Barthelemy Baretta,. The good squire would not have followed Jeanne against the King's will. That he, at this date, owed money to La Tremoille is as we have already shown an error. He borrowed the money gold crowns just two years later, when Jeanne was dead, on March 16, ; and this fact is M. France's proof for the statement that dAulon was in debt to La Tremoi'lle in March !

Having had to ransom himself after being captured with Jeanne at Compiegne, in , dAulon was obliged to negotiate a loan for two months from La Tremoi'lle.

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Champion correctly states that Jeanne left Sully with a little troop her " two or three lances " " and rode for Lagny-sur-Marne because they of Lagny made good war on the English of Paris," as says the d'Alencon chronicler. At Lagny she met soldiers of goodwill, Baretta, Kennedy apparently not Sir Hugh, called " Come with the penny " , and Ambroise de Lore commanding there, or his lieutenant, Foucault. Baretta commanded thirty-two men-at-arms, forty-three cross bowmen, and twenty archers.

To this handful had shrunk the armies of Dunois, La Hire, Boussac, and de Rais, with whom the Maid was used to ride ; she was not sent to accompany any of the great leaders ; she rode off from Sully and joined the first company of men warring near Paris whom she could encounter. To strike at Paris, with however weak a stroke, to be " in France," the old He de France, was always her desire.

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Yet it does not appear that she was wholly without Royal backing. She actually possessed, when captured, 12, livres of her King's money--all her war chest.

Surrounded by the Maid of Orleans| France-Travel-Info France Travel Info

It is probable that with this sum she supported Baretta' s handful of men. And now her Voices abandoned her : not that they were silent, but they gave no warlike counsel. She told her judges the heart- breaking story. It was in Easter week April , and it seems to have been in a moment of triumph, that "as I was on the ramparts of Melun, St.

Catherine and St. Margaret warned me that I should be captured before Midsummer day ; that so it must needs be : nor must I be afraid and astounded ; but take all things well, for God would help me. So they spoke, almost every day. And I prayed that when I was taken I might die in that hour, without wretchedness of long captivity ; but the Voices said that so it must be. Often I asked the hour, which they told me not ; had I known the hour, I would not have gone into battle.

Would not the bravest man, with the prospect of the death by fire in case of his capture, would not Ney or Skobelev, Wallace or Gordon, have blenched? But the Maid rode on, first in the charge, last in the retreat. There is no other such tale in history. She was the bravest of the brave. I have said that this tidings came to her in no hour of depres- sion, but of triumph. Melun had been English for ten years : in October it had been handed over by Bedford to the Duke of Burgundy.

But in April the townsfolk ejected the Burgundian garrison and captain, and left free to France their bridge, and the passage of the Seine. Champion, "the still abiding value and ascendant of the presence of Jeanne. She opened more brilliantly than has been generally recognised the campaign of the Oise. News reached Lagny that a band of three or four hundred " Englishmen " was traversing the He de France, doing as much mischief to the country as they could.

Thread starter bohobo Start date Feb 12, I did look up the word 'maid' on word reference, but none of the words and meanings listed seemed quite right? Any suggestions?

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Zone Senior Member France, French. Quel est le nom de votre journal?

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I expect they don't have a phrase. I am sure it isn't English maid! Zone said:. Parigigi Senior Member Paris.